Chronology: 1923 – Itten leaves, Moholy-Nagy comes


  • The council of masters resolves to display a show house complete with all interior decorations at the forthcoming exhibition. A majority at the Bauhaus members rejects Lothar Schreyer’s "Mondspiel".
  • German nationalist members of the Thuringian parliament criticise the organisation and management of the Bauhaus. The education minister comes out in its defense.
  • Lothar Schreyer leaves the Bauhaus, Oskar Schlemmer heads the Bauhaus theatre (together with the stone-sculpture and woodcarving workshops). Itten departs for new pastures and is succeeded by Moholy-Nagy, who takes over the Vorkurs and the metal workshop in october. Josef Albers heads the study of materials and the stained-glass workshop.
  • Walter Gropius delivers a paper on the unity of art, technology and science in Hanover.
  • Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar with several displays (including international architecture, with works by Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, J. J. P. Oud and others), publications and special events (including the "Mechanical Ballet" by Kurt Schmidt and Georg Teltscher in Jena). The pinnacle of achievement is the Haus am Horn (idea and design by Georg Muche, assisted by Adolf Meyer) with furniture and objects by Marcel Breuer, Erich Dieckmann, Benita Otte, Gyula Pap et al. Walter Gropius opens the exhibition with a paper entitled "Art and Technology – A New Unity". Walter Gropius’s and Adolf Meyer’s (unbuilt) design for an extension (fitters shop) to the Fagus works in Alfeld anticipates major elements of the Bauhaus building (curtain wall etc.).
  • Classes by Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky accompany the "Vorkurs". Bauhaus students take their apprentice examinations in the second semester.
  • The army searches Walter Gropius home in response to an anonymous political tip-off. Theo van Doesburg polemicises against the Bauhaus, which has not developed in the way it envisaged.
  • Gropius seeks to separate the production workshops from teaching.


  • French and Belgian troops occupy the Ruhr in order to enforce the payment of reparation, passive civil resistance.
  • Runaway inflation: 1 Dollar = 21,000 Marks, 1 Dollar = 78,250 Marks, 1 Dollar = 1,100,000 Marks.
  • 60 % of Germans jobless. General strike. Stresemann administration (grand coalition).
  • Postwar crisis reaches a climax. 1 Dollar = 2 trillion Marks. To end the inflation the rentenmark is introduced on the basis of land ownership: 1 Rentenmark = 1,000 billion paper Marks.
  • Communist revolts in Saxony, Thuringia and Hamburg. Workers’ government of independent social democrats and communists in Thuringia, overthrown by the army.
  • Hitler-Ludendorff putsch put down in Munich. NSDAP banned throughout Germany. Marx (centrist) administration.

S C I E N C E ,   T E C H N O L O G Y   A N D   A R T S

  • Science and technology: Madsen develops whooping cough vaccine, wireless photo-telegraphy between Italy and United States, Henry Ford’s autobiography "My Life and Work" appears in German translation. German public radio goes on air.
  • Literature: Rainer Maria Rilke’s "Duinese Elegies, Sonnets to Orpheus".
  • Theatre and music: James P. Johnson’s Charleston.
  • Film: First Talkie. Harold Lloyd’s "Safety Last".
  • Art: "The Large Glass, or the Bride Stripped Bare" by her bachelors by Marcel Duchamp, El Lissitzky’s proun room in Berlin.
  • Architecture: "Toward a New Architecture" by Le Corbusier, hat factory in Luckenwalde by Erich Mendelsohn.